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Amateur repeater frequency offset

An amateur radio repeater is an electronic device that receives a weak or low-level amateur radio signal and retransmits it at a higher level or higher power, so that the signal can cover longer distances without degradation. Many repeaters are located on hilltops or on tall buildings as the higher location increases their coverage area, sometimes referred to as the radio horizon , or "footprint". Amateur radio repeaters are similar in concept to those used by public safety entities police, fire department, etc. Amateur radio repeaters may even use commercially packaged repeater systems that have been adjusted to operate within amateur radio frequency bands, but more often amateur repeaters are assembled from receivers, transmitters, controllers, power supplies, antennas, and other components, from various sources. In amateur radio , repeaters are typically maintained by individual hobbyists or local groups of amateur radio operators. Many repeaters are provided openly to other amateur radio operators and typically not used as a remote base station by a single user or group. In some areas multiple repeaters are linked together to form a wide-coverage network, such as the linked system provided by the Independent Repeater Association [1] which covers most of western Michigan, or the Western Intertie Network System "WINsystem" that now covers a great deal of California, and is in 17 other states, including Hawaii, along with parts of four other countries, Australia, Canada, Great Britain and Japan.
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Getting started with ham radio repeaters

Amateur repeater frequency offset
Amateur repeater frequency offset
Amateur repeater frequency offset
Amateur repeater frequency offset
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Amateur radio repeater - Wikipedia

In order to be able to achieve this, the repeater transmitter signal must not interfere with the receiver so that it is sufficiently sensitive to receive transmissions at the same time it is transmitting. To achieve this the receiver and transmit channels are offset sufficiently to enable this to occur. Most repeaters operate using the same location for transmit and receive, and normally they use the same antenna. In order that the transmitter signal does not enter the receiver and overload the input and desensitise it, the signal from the repeater passes into a duplexer. The purpose of this is to provide a filter for the receiver section of the repeater that only passes signals on the receive channel and rejects those on the transmit channel of the repeater. Often this consists of a band-pass filter for the receive channel and a notch filter for the transmit channel. Also for the transmitter, filtering must ensure that no spurious signals are radiated on the receive channel as this would also impair the sensitivity of the repeater receiver.
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Simplex, Duplex, Offset and Split

In order to be able to achieve this, the repeater transmitter signal must not interfere with the receiver so that it is sufficiently sensitive to receive transmissions at the same time it is transmitting. To achieve this the receiver and transmit channels are offset sufficiently to enable this to occur. Most repeaters operate using the same location for transmit and receive, and normally they use the same antenna. In order that the transmitter signal does not enter the receiver and overload the input and desensitise it, the signal from the repeater passes into a duplexer.
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The word simplex is not needed. Most of them are but not all. More importantly, I think this exchange highlights some common confusion about terms such as simplex, duplex and repeater operation. Simplex — In the amateur radio context, simplex operation means the radio stations are communicating with each other directly, on the same frequency. Both stations take turns transmitting and receiving on the same frequency with no repeater or other device in between.
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